Langue: en

Version: 254561 (debian - 07/07/09)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)


dcm2pnm - Convert DICOM images to PPM/PGM, PNG, TIFF or BMP


 dcm2pnm [options] dcmfile-in [pnmfile-out]


The dcm2pnm utility reads a DICOM image, converts the pixel data according to the selected image processing options and writes back an image in the well-known PPM/PGM file format (portable pix map / portable gray map), PNG, TIFF or BMP format. This utility only supports uncompressed and RLE compressed DICOM images. The command line tool dcmj2pnm also supports a number of JPEG compression schemes.


 dcmfile-in   DICOM input filename to be converted
 pnmfile-out  output filename to be written (default: stdout)


general options

   -h    --help
           print this help text and exit
           print version information and exit
   -v    --verbose
           verbose mode, print processing details
   -q    --quiet
           quiet mode, print no warnings and errors
   -d    --debug
           debug mode, print debug information
   -im   --image-info
           info mode, print image details

input options

 input file format:
   +f    --read-file
           read file format or data set (default)
   +fo   --read-file-only
           read file format only
   -f    --read-dataset
           read data set without file meta information
 input transfer syntax:
   -t=   --read-xfer-auto
           use TS recognition (default)
   -td   --read-xfer-detect
           ignore TS specified in the file meta header
   -te   --read-xfer-little
           read with explicit VR little endian TS
   -tb   --read-xfer-big
           read with explicit VR big endian TS
   -ti   --read-xfer-implicit
           read with implicit VR little endian TS

processing options

 frame selection:
   +F    --frame  [n]umber : integer
           select specified frame (default: 1)
   +Fr   --frame-range  [n]umber [c]ount : integer
           select c frames beginning with frame n
   +Fa   --all-frames
           select all frames
   +Rl   --rotate-left
           rotate image left (-90 degrees)
   +Rr   --rotate-right
           rotate image right (+90 degrees)
   +Rtd  --rotate-top-down
           rotate image top-down (180 degrees)
   +Lh   --flip-horizontally
           flip image horizontally
   +Lv   --flip-vertically
           flip image vertically
   +Lhv  --flip-both-axes
           flip image horizontally and vertically
   +a    --recognize-aspect
           recognize pixel aspect ratio (default)
   -a    --ignore-aspect
           ignore pixel aspect ratio when scaling
   +i    --interpolate  [n]umber of algorithm : integer
           use interpolation when scaling (1..2, default: 1)
   -i    --no-interpolation
           no interpolation when scaling
   -S    --no-scaling
           no scaling, ignore pixel aspect ratio (default)
   +Sxf  --scale-x-factor  [f]actor : float
           scale x axis by factor, auto-compute y axis
   +Syf  --scale-y-factor  [f]actor : float
           scale y axis by factor, auto-compute x axis
   +Sxv  --scale-x-size  [n]umber : integer
           scale x axis to n pixels, auto-compute y axis
   +Syv  --scale-y-size  [n]umber : integer
           scale y axis to n pixels, auto-compute x axis
 modality LUT transformation:
   -M    --no-modality
           ignore stored modality LUT transformation
   +M    --use-modality
           use modality LUT transformation (default)
 VOI LUT transformation:
   -W    --no-windowing
           no VOI windowing (default)
   +Wi   --use-window  [n]umber : integer
           use the n-th VOI window from image file
   +Wl   --use-voi-lut  [n]umber : integer
           use the n-th VOI look up table from image file
   +Wm   --min-max-window
           compute VOI window using min-max algorithm
   +Wn   --min-max-window-n
           compute VOI window using min-max algorithm,
           ignoring extreme values
   +Wr   --roi-min-max-window  [l]eft [t]op [w]idth [h]eight : integer
           compute ROI window using min-max algorithm,
           region of interest is specified by l,t,w,h
   +Wh   --histogram-window  [n]umber : integer
           compute VOI window using Histogram algorithm,
           ignoring n percent
   +Ww   --set-window  [c]enter [w]idth : float
           compute VOI window using center c and width w
 presentation LUT transformation:
   +Pid  --identity-shape
           presentation LUT shape IDENTITY
   +Piv  --inverse-shape
           presentation LUT shape INVERSE
   +Pod  --lin-od-shape
           presentation LUT shape LIN OD
   -O    --no-overlays
           do not display overlays
   +O    --display-overlay  [n]umber : integer
           display overlay n (0..16, 0=all, default: +O 0)
   +Omr  --ovl-replace
           use overlay mode "Replace"
           (default for Graphic overlays)
   +Omt  --ovl-threshold
           use overlay mode "Threshold Replace"
   +Omc  --ovl-complement
           use overlay mode "Complement"
   +Omv  --ovl-invert
           use overlay mode "Invert Bitmap"
   +Omi  --ovl-roi
           use overlay mode "Region of Interest"
           (default for ROI overlays)
   +Osf  --set-foreground  [d]ensity : float
           set overlay foreground density (0..1, default: 1)
   +Ost  --set-threshold  [d]ensity : float
           set overlay threshold density (0..1, default: 0.5)
 display LUT transformation:
   +Dm   --monitor-file  [f]ilename : string
           calibrate output according to monitor characteristics
           defined in f
   +Dp   --printer-file  [f]ilename : string
           calibrate output according to printer characteristics
           defined in f
   +Da   --ambient-light  [a]mbient light : float
           ambient light value (cd/m^2, default: file f)
   +Di   --illumination  [i]llumination : float
           illumination value (cd/m^2, default: file f)
   +Dn   --min-density  [m]inimum optical density : float
           Dmin value (default: off, only with +Dp)
   +Dx   --max-density  [m]aximum optical density : float
           Dmax value (default: off, only with +Dp)
   +Dg   --gsd-function
           use GSDF for calibration (default for +Dm/+Dp)
   +Dc   --cielab-function
           use CIELAB function for calibration
 compatibility options:
   +Ma   --accept-acr-nema
           accept ACR-NEMA images without photometric
   +Mp   --accept-palettes
           accept incorrect palette attribute tags
           (0028,111x) and (0028,121x)
   +Mm   --ignore-mlut-depth
           ignore 3rd value of the modality LUT descriptor,
           determine bits per table entry automatically
   +Mv   --ignore-vlut-depth
           ignore 3rd value of the VOI LUT descriptor,
           determine bits per table entry automatically
 TIFF options:
   +Tl   --compr-lzw
           LZW compression (default)
   +Tr   --compr-rle
           RLE compression
   +Tn   --compr-none
   +Pd   --predictor-default
           no LZW predictor (default)
   +Pn   --predictor-none
           LZW predictor 1 (no prediction)
   +Ph   --predictor-horz
           LZW predictor 2 (horizontal differencing)
   +Rs   --rows-per-strip  [r]ows : integer (default: 0)
           rows per strip, default 8K per strip
 PNG options:
   +il   --interlace
           create interlaced file (default)
   -il   --nointerlace
           create non-interlaced file
   +mf   --meta-file
           create PNG file meta information (default)
   -mf   --meta-none
           no PNG file meta information
 other transformations:
   +G    --grayscale
           convert to grayscale if necessary
   +P    --change-polarity
           change polarity (invert pixel output)
   +C    --clip-region  [l]eft [t]op [w]idth [h]eight : integer
           clip image region (l, t, w, h)

output options

   -o    --no-output
           do not create any output (useful with -im)
   +op   --write-raw-pnm
           write 8-bit binary PGM/PPM (default for files)
   +opb  --write-8-bit-pnm
           write 8-bit ASCII PGM/PPM (default for stdout)
   +opw  --write-16-bit-pnm
           write 16-bit ASCII PGM/PPM
   +opn  --write-n-bit-pnm  [n]umber : integer
           write n-bit ASCII PGM/PPM (1..32)
   +ob   --write-bmp
           write 8-bit (monochrome) or 24-bit (color) BMP
   +obp  --write-8-bit-bmp
           write 8-bit palette BMP (monochrome only)
   +obt  --write-24-bit-bmp
           write 24-bit truecolor BMP
   +ot   --write-tiff
           write 8-bit (monochrome) or 24-bit (color) TIFF
   +on   --write-png
           write 8-bit (monochrome) or 24-bit (color) PNG


The --write-tiff option is only available when DCMTK has been configured and compiled with support for the external libtiff TIFF library. The availability of the TIFF compression options depends on the libtiff configuration. In particular, the patented LZW algorithm may not be available.

The --write-png option is only available when DCMTK has been configured and compiled with support for the external libpng PNG library. Interlace enables progressive image view while loading the PNG file. Only a few applications take care of the metainfo (TEXT) in a png file.

Sample monitor and printer characteristics files are available in the data folder.


All command line tools use the following notation for parameters: square brackets enclose optional values (0-1), three trailing dots indicate that multiple values are allowed (1-n), a combination of both means 0 to n values.

Command line options are distinguished from parameters by a leading '+' or '-' sign, respectively. Usually, order and position of command line options are arbitrary (i.e. they can appear anywhere). However, if options are mutually exclusive the rightmost appearance is used. This behaviour conforms to the standard evaluation rules of common Unix shells.

In addition, one or more command files can be specified using an '@' sign as a prefix to the filename (e.g. @command.txt). Such a command argument is replaced by the content of the corresponding text file (multiple whitespaces are treated as a single separator) prior to any further evaluation. Please note that a command file cannot contain another command file. This simple but effective approach allows to summarize common combinations of options/parameters and avoids longish and confusing command lines (an example is provided in file share/data/dumppat.txt).


The dcm2pnm utility will attempt to load DICOM data dictionaries specified in the DCMDICTPATH environment variable. By default, i.e. if the DCMDICTPATH environment variable is not set, the file <PREFIX>/lib/dicom.dic will be loaded unless the dictionary is built into the application (default for Windows).

The default behaviour should be preferred and the DCMDICTPATH environment variable only used when alternative data dictionaries are required. The DCMDICTPATH environment variable has the same format as the Unix shell PATH variable in that a colon (':') separates entries. The data dictionary code will attempt to load each file specified in the DCMDICTPATH environment variable. It is an error if no data dictionary can be loaded.


share/data/camera.lut - sample characteristics file of a camera
share/data/monitor.lut - sample characteristics file of a monitor
share/data/printer.lut - sample characteristics file of a printer
share/data/scanner.lut - sample characteristics file of a scanner



Copyright (C) 1998-2005 by Kuratorium OFFIS e.V., Escherweg 2, 26121 Oldenburg, Germany.