Langue: en

Version: 07/28/2010 (ubuntu - 24/10/10)

Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)


git-show - Show various types of objects


git show [options] <object>...


Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).

For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also presents the merge commit in a special format as produced by git diff-tree --cc.

For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.

For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to git ls-tree with --name-only).

For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.

The command takes options applicable to the git diff-tree command to control how the changes the commit introduces are shown.

This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.



The names of objects to show. For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in git-rev-parse(1).

--pretty[=<format>], --format[=<format>]

Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. When omitted, the format defaults to medium.
Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see git-config(1)).


Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).
This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using 80-column terminals.


This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.


The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

--no-notes, --show-notes[=<ref>]

Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty, --format nor --oneline option is given on the command line.
With an optional argument, add this ref to the list of notes. The ref is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.


Enable or disable populating the notes ref list from the core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding environment overrides). Enabled by default. See git-config(1).


If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a certain directory or file.

Here are some additional details for each format:

 <sha1> <title line>

This is designed to be as compact as possible.

 commit <sha1>
 Author: <author>
 <title line>

 commit <sha1>
 Author: <author>
 Date:   <author date>
 <title line>
 <full commit message>

 commit <sha1>
 Author: <author>
 Commit: <committer>
 <title line>
 <full commit message>

 commit <sha1>
 Author:     <author>
 AuthorDate: <author date>
 Commit:     <committer>
 CommitDate: <committer date>
 <title line>
 <full commit message>

 From <sha1> <date>
 From: <author>
 Date: <author date>
 Subject: [PATCH] <title line>
 <full commit message>

The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor history simplification into account.

The format: format allows you to specify which information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.
E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show something like this:
 The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
 The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

The placeholders are:

%H: commit hash

%h: abbreviated commit hash

%T: tree hash

%t: abbreviated tree hash

%P: parent hashes

%p: abbreviated parent hashes

%an: author name

%aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

%ae: author email

%aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

%ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

%aD: author date, RFC2822 style

%ar: author date, relative

%at: author date, UNIX timestamp

%ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

%cn: committer name

%cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

%ce: committer email

%cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

%cd: committer date

%cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

%cr: committer date, relative

%ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

%ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

%d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

%e: encoding

%s: subject

%f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

%b: body

%N: commit notes

%gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

%gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

%gs: reflog subject

%Cred: switch color to red

%Cgreen: switch color to green

%Cblue: switch color to blue

%Creset: reset color

%C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option

%m: left, right or boundary mark

%n: newline

%%: a raw %

%x00: print a byte from a hex code

%w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).


Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For example:
 $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
   | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
 7134973 -- NO NEWLINE
 $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
   | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

 $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
 $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


git show v1.0.0

Shows the tag v1.0.0, along with the object the tags points at.

git show v1.0.0^{tree}

Shows the tree pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

git show next~10:Documentation/README

Shows the contents of the file Documentation/README as they were current in the 10th last commit of the branch next.

git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile

Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head of the branch master.


At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

• The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding translation.
• The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.
• The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.

Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like this:
         commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file, like this:
         logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


Written by Linus Torvalds <m[blue]torvalds@osdl.orgm[][1]> and Junio C Hamano <m[blue]gitster@pobox.comm[][2]>. Significantly enhanced by Johannes Schindelin <m[blue]Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.dem[][3]>.


Documentation by David Greaves, Petr Baudis and the git-list <m[blue]git@vger.kernel.orgm[][4]>.


Part of the git(1) suite