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Version: 1 Jul 2003 (ubuntu - 07/07/09)

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Section: 1 (Commandes utilisateur)


send - send a message


send [-alias aliasfile] [-draft] [-draftfolder +folder] [-draftmessage msg] [-nodraftfolder] [-filter filterfile] [-nofilter] [-format | -noformat] [-forward | -noforward] [-mime | -nomime] [-msgid | -nomsgid] [-push | -nopush] [-split seconds] [-verbose | -noverbose] [-watch | -nowatch] [-sasl] [-saslmech mechanism] [-user username] [-width columns] [file ...] [-version] [-help] [-attach header-field-name]


will cause each of the specified files to be delivered to each of the destinations in the ``To:'', ``cc:'', ``Bcc:'', ``Dcc:'', and ``Fcc:'' fields of the message. If send is re-distributing a message, as invoked from dist, then the corresponding ``Resent-xxx'' fields are examined instead.

By default, send uses the program post to do the actual delivery of the messages, although this can be changed by defining the postproc profile component. Most of the features attributed to send are actually performed by post.

If a header-field-name is supplied using the -attach option, the draft is scanned for a header whose field name matches the supplied header-field-name. The draft is converted to a MIME message if one or more matches are found. This conversion occurs before all other processing.

The first part of the MIME message is the draft body if that body contains any non-blank characters. The body of each header field whose name matches the header-field-name is interpreted as a file name, and each file named is included as a separate part in the MIME message.

For file names with dot suffixes, the context is scanned for a mhshow-suffix- entry for that suffix. The content-type for the part is taken from that context entry if a match is found. If no match is found or the file does not have a dot suffix, the content-type is text/plain if the file contains only ASCII characters or application/octet-stream if it contains characters outside of the ASCII range.

Each part contains a name attribute that is the last component of the path name. A x-unix-mode attribute containing the file mode accompanies each part. Finally, a description attribute is generated by running the file command on the file.

If -push is specified, send will detach itself from the user's terminal and perform its actions in the background. If push'd and the draft can't be sent, then an error message will be sent (using the mailproc) back to the user. If -forward is given, then a copy of the draft will be attached to this failure notice. Using -push differs from putting send in the background because the output is trapped and analyzed by nmh.

If -verbose is specified, send will indicate the interactions occurring with the transport system, prior to actual delivery. If -watch is specified send will monitor the delivery of local and network mail. Hence, by specifying both switches, a large detail of information can be gathered about each step of the message's entry into the transport system.

The -draftfolder +folder and -draftmessage msg switches invoke the nmh draft folder facility. This is an advanced (and highly useful) feature. Consult the mh-draft(5) man page for more information.

If -split is specified, send will split the draft into one or more partial messages prior to sending. This makes use of the MIME features in nmh. Note however that if send is invoked under dist, then this switch is ignored -- it makes no sense to redistribute a message in this fashion. Sometimes you want send to pause after posting a partial message. This is usually the case when you are running sendmail and expect to generate a lot of partial messages. The argument to -split tells it how long to pause between postings.

Send with no file argument will query whether the draft is the intended file, whereas -draft will suppress this question. Once the transport system has successfully accepted custody of the message, the file will be renamed with a leading comma, which allows it to be retrieved until the next draft message is sent. If there are errors in the formatting of the message, send will abort with a (hopefully) helpful error message.

If a ``Bcc:'' field is encountered, its addresses will be used for delivery, and the ``Bcc:'' field will be removed from the message sent to sighted recipients. The blind recipients will receive an entirely new message with a minimal set of headers. Included in the body of the message will be a copy of the message sent to the sighted recipients.

If a ``Dcc:'' field is encountered, its addresses will be used for delivery, and the ``Dcc:'' field will be removed from the message. The blind recipients will receive the same message sent to the sighted recipients. *WARNING* Recipients listed in the ``Dcc:'' field receive no explicit indication that they have received a ``blind copy''. This can cause blind recipients to inadvertently reply to all of the sighted recipients of the original message, revealing that they received a blind copy. On the other hand, since a normal reply to a message sent via a ``Bcc:'' field will generate a reply only to the sender of the original message, it takes extra effort in most mailers to reply to the included message, and so would usually only be done deliberately, rather than by accident.

If -filter filterfile is specified, then this copy is filtered (re-formatted) by mhl prior to being sent to the blind recipients. Alternately, if you specify the -mime switch, then send will use the MIME rules for encapsulation.

Prior to sending the message, the fields ``From: user@local'', and ``Date: now'' will be appended to the headers in the message. If the environment variable $SIGNATURE is set, then its value is used as your personal name when constructing the ``From:'' line of the message. If this environment variable is not set, then send will consult the profile entry ``Signature'' for this information. If -msgid is specified, then a ``Message-ID:'' field will also be added to the message.

If send is re-distributing a message (when invoked by dist), then ``Resent-'' will be prepended to each of these fields: ``From:'', ``Date:'', and ``Message-ID:''. If the message already contains a ``From:'' field, then a ``Sender: user@local'' field will be added as well. (An already existing ``Sender:'' field is an error!)

By using the -format switch, each of the entries in the ``To:'' and ``cc:'' fields will be replaced with ``standard'' format entries. This standard format is designed to be usable by all of the message handlers on the various systems around the Internet. If -noformat is given, then headers are output exactly as they appear in the message draft.

If an ``Fcc: folder'' is encountered, the message will be copied to the specified folder for the sender in the format in which it will appear to any non-Bcc receivers of the message. That is, it will have the appended fields and field reformatting. The ``Fcc:'' fields will be removed from all outgoing copies of the message.

By using the -width columns switch, the user can direct send as to how long it should make header lines containing addresses.

If nmh has been compiled with SASL support, the -sasl switch will enable the use of SASL authentication with the SMTP MTA. Depending on the SASL mechanism used, this may require an additional password prompt from the user (but the ``.netrc'' file can be used to store this password). -saslmech switch can be used to select a particular SASL mechanism, and the the -user switch can be used to select a authorization userid to provide to SASL other than the default.

Currently SASL security layers are not supported for SMTP. nmh's SMTP SASL code will always negotiate an unencrypted connection. This means that while the SMTP authentication can be encrypted, the subsequent data stream can not. This is in contrast to nmh's POP3 SASL support, where encryption is supported for both the authentication and the data stream.

The files specified by the profile entry ``Aliasfile:'' and any additional alias files given by the -alias aliasfile switch will be read (more than one file, each preceded by -alias, can be named). See mh-alias(5) for more information.


 ^$HOME/.mh_profile~^The user profile


 ^Path:~^To determine the user's nmh directory
 ^Draft-Folder:~^To find the default draft-folder
 ^Aliasfile:~^For a default alias file
 ^Signature:~^To determine the user's mail signature
 ^mailproc:~^Program to post failure notices
 ^postproc:~^Program to post the message


comp(1), dist(1), forw(1), repl(1), mh-alias(5), post(8)


 `file' defaults to <mh-dir>/draft
 `-alias' defaults to /etc/nmh/MailAliases
 `-width 72'




Under some configurations, it is not possible to monitor the mail delivery transaction; -watch is a no-op on those systems.

Using -split 0 doesn't work correctly.