Langue: en

Version: 300673 (debian - 07/07/09)

Section: 4 (Pilotes et protocoles réseau)

BSD mandoc


faith - IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relay capturing interface


device faith


The interface captures IPv6 TCP traffic, for implementing userland IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relay like faithd(8).

Each interface is created at runtime using interface cloning. This is most easily done with the ifconfig(8) create command or using the cloned_interfaces variable in rc.conf5.

Special action will be taken when IPv6 TCP traffic is seen on a router, and routing table suggests to route it to interface. In this case, the packet will be accepted by the router, regardless of list of IPv6 interface addresses assigned to the router. The packet will be captured by an IPv6 TCP socket, if it has IN6P_FAITH flag turned on and it has matching address/port pairs. In result, will let you capture IPv6 TCP traffic to some specific destination addresses. Userland programs, such as faithd(8) can use this behavior to relay IPv6 TCP traffic to IPv4 TCP traffic. The program can accept some specific IPv6 TCP traffic, perform getsockname(2) to get the IPv6 destination address specified by the client, and perform application-specific address mapping to relay IPv6 TCP to IPv4 TCP.

The IN6P_FAITH flag on IPv6 TCP socket can be set by using setsockopt(2), with level equals to IPPROTO_IPV6 and optname equals to IPv6_FAITH

To handle error reports by ICMPv6, some of ICMPv6 packets routed to interface will be delivered to IPv6 TCP, as well.

To understand how can be used, take a look at source code of faithd(8).

As interface implements potentially dangerous operation, great care must be taken when configuring interface. To avoid possible misuse, sysctl(8) variable net.inet6.ip6.keepfaith must be set to 1 prior to the use of the interface. When net.inet6.ip6.keepfaith is 0 no packet will be captured by interface.

interface is intended to be used on routers, not on hosts.


inet(4), inet6(4), faithd(8)
Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino Kazu Yamamoto "An IPv6-to-IPv4 transport relay translator" RFC3142


The FAITH IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relay translator was first appeared in WIDE hydrangea IPv6 stack.