Autres langues

Langue: ru

Version: 07/24/2009 (MeeGo - 06/11/10)

Section: 8 (Commandes administrateur)


usermod - изменяет учётную запись пользователя


usermod [параметры] LOGIN


Команда usermod изменяет системные файлы учётных записей согласно переданным в командной строке параметрам.


Параметры команды usermod:

-a, --append

Add the user to the supplementary group(s). Use only with the -G option.

-c, --commentКОММЕНТАРИЙ

Новое значение поля комментария в файле пользовательских паролей. Обычно его изменяют с помощью программы chfn(1).


The user's new login directory.
If the -m option is given, the contents of the current home directory will be moved to the new home directory, which is created if it does not already exist.

-e, --expiredateДАТА_УСТАРЕВАНИЯ

Дата, когда учётная запись пользователя будет заблокирована. Дата задаётся в формате ГГГГ-ММ-ДД.

-f, --inactiveДНЕЙ

The number of days after a password expires until the account is permanently disabled.
A value of 0 disables the account as soon as the password has expired, and a value of -1 disables the feature.

-g, --gidГРУППА

The group name or number of the user's new initial login group. The group must exist.

-G, --groupsГРУППА1[,ГРУППА2,...[,ГРУППАN]]]

A list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option.
If the user is currently a member of a group which is not listed, the user will be removed from the group. This behaviour can be changed via the -a option, which appends the user to the current supplementary group list.

-l, --loginНОВОЕ_ИМЯ

The name of the user will be changed from LOGIN to NEW_LOGIN. Nothing else is changed. In particular, the user's home directory name should probably be changed manually to reflect the new login name.

-L, --lock

Заблокировать пароль пользователя. Это делается помещением символа '!' в начало шифрованного пароля, чтобы приводит к блокировке пароля. Не используйте этот параметр вместе с -p или -U.
Note: if you wish to lock the account (not only access with a password), you should also set the EXPIRE_DATE to 1.

-m, --move-home

Move the content of the user's home directory to the new location.
This option is only valid in combination with the -d (or --home) option.

-o, --non-unique

При использовании с параметром -u, этот параметр позволяет указывать не уникальный числовой идентификатор пользователя.

-p, --passwordПАРОЛЬ

Шифрованное значение пароля, которое возвращает функция crypt(3).

Note: This option is not recommended because the password (or encrypted password) will be visible by users listing the processes.
You should make sure the password respects the system's password policy.

-s, --shellОБОЛОЧКА

Имя новой регистрационной оболочки пользователя. Если задать пустое значение, то будет использована регистрационная оболочка по умолчанию.

-u, --uidUID

The new numerical value of the user's ID.
This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Values between 0 and 999 are typically reserved for system accounts.
The user's mailbox, and any files which the user owns and which are located in the user's home directory will have the file user ID changed automatically.
The ownership of files outside of the user's home directory must be fixed manually.

-U, --unlock

Разблокировать пароль пользователя. Это выполняется удалением символа '!' из начала шифрованного пароля. Не используйте этот параметр вместе с -p или -L.
Note: if you wish to unlock the account (not only access with a password), you should also set the EXPIRE_DATE (for example to 99999, or to the EXPIRE value from /etc/default/useradd).

-Z, --selinux-user SEUSER

The SELinux user for the user's login. The default is to leave this field the blank, which causes the system to select the default SELinux user.


You must make certain that the named user is not executing any processes when this command is being executed if the user's numerical user ID, the user's name, or the user's home directory is being changed. usermod checks this on Linux, but only check if the user is logged in according to utmp on other architectures.

You must change the owner of any crontab files or at jobs manually.

You must make any changes involving NIS on the NIS server.


The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of this tool:

MAIL_DIR (string)

Почтовый каталог. Данный параметр нужен для управления почтовым ящиком при изменении или удалении учётной записи пользователя. Если параметр не задан, то используется значение указанное при сборке.

MAIL_FILE (string)

Defines the location of the users mail spool files relatively to their home directory.

The MAIL_DIR and MAIL_FILE variables are used by useradd, usermod, and userdel to create, move, or delete the user's mail spool.

If MAIL_CHECK_ENAB is set to yes, they are also used to define the MAIL environment variable.


Maximum members per group entry. When the maximum is reached, a new group entry (line) is started in /etc/group (with the same name, same password, and same GID).
The default value is 0, meaning that there are no limits in the number of members in a group.
This feature (split group) permits to limit the length of lines in the group file. This is useful to make sure that lines for NIS groups are not larger than 1024 characters.
If you need to enforce such limit, you can use 25.
Note: split groups may not be supported by all tools (even in the Shadow toolsuite). You should not use this variable unless you really need it.



содержит информацию о группах


содержит защищаемую информацию о группах


содержит информацию о пользователях


содержит защищаемую информацию о пользователях


chfn(1), chsh(1), passwd(1), crypt(3), gpasswd(8), groupadd(8), groupdel(8), groupmod(8), login.defs(5), useradd(8), userdel(8).